When it comes to prawn farming, or fresh water shrimp farming, the selection of a suitable site is very essential so that you can realize the needed success. This needs to be done even before the project is commenced because failure to do this may impact negatively to the farmer and even to the image of prawn farming. This must be done very carefully for both the grow-out and the larval phases. This article is based on the selection of good quality water for the prawn farming.
The larval stages of the fresh water prawns need to be in brackish-water for their growth and survival, therefore the hatchers should not be located on sites like those on the coastal regions. Inland site are the most preferred for these hatchers and the brackish-water can be obtained by simply mixing the seawater and the locally available freshwater. All these are because the hatcheries will require abundant freshwater and sea water regardless of type. This is why hatchery sites need to be located far from harbors, cities and industrial centers or far from any kind of activity that can cause air pollution.
Generally, it has always been recommended that with freshwater prawn farming the fresh water supply need not to be only from the surface. Because of this, watershed surveys and analyses need to be done especially for oil spill residues and the pesticides. The ideal site for the location of this kind of farming would be in areas where wells are sunk and provide both freshwater and sea water which is very difficult to find. Ground water sources can also be used because they are less liable to pollution making them they very clean. However the quality of water will always depend on the type of soil in that area and for example the muddy areas may not be suitable but larger filters may be used as long as they can be cleaned periodically.
Therefore, for the farming to be successful enough then the water needs to be carefully analyzed for things like biological, chemical and physical properties. Special care need to be taken in sites where herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers are commonly used because this may cause a lot of problem to the prawn farming if not well managed. High levels of manganese and iron must also be avoided because these are dangerous to the prawn larvae. Generally you need to avoid all the heavy metals like lead, mercury, and zinc. You must also make sure that the water is well aerated so that the oxygen level is up to the saturation point.
In some cases artificial seawater has been used for example in research and this reduce the many problems that may be caused by parasites, water pollution and even the prawn competitors. But the problem is that the artificial water may be very complex and expensive and may not be suitable for some freshwater prawns. Therefore before you decide on where to locate your prawn farming you need to do a lot of research on different issues that may affect the quality of water that you want to use for the project. You must also not forget the optimum ph that will support the growth and development of prawns.